A well-designed network not only controls traffic, but also limits the size of failure domains. A failure domain is the area of a network that is impacted when a critical device or network service experiences problems.
The function of the device that initially fails determines the impact of a failure domain. For example, a malfunctioning switch on a network segment normally affects only the hosts on that segment. However, if the router that connects this segment to others fails, the impact is much greater.
The use of redundant links and reliable enterprise-class equipment minimize the chance of disruption in a network. Smaller failure domains reduce the impact of a failure on company productivity. They also simplify the troubleshooting process, thereby, shortening the downtime for all users.
In the figure, click each network device to view the associated failure domain.
Limiting the Size of Failure Domains
Because a failure at the core layer of a network can have a potentially large impact, the network designer often concentrates on efforts to prevent failures. These efforts can greatly increase the cost of implementing the network. In the hierarchical design model, it is easiest and usually least expensive to control the size of a failure domain in the distribution layer. In the distribution layer, network errors can be contained to a smaller area; thus, affecting fewer users. When using Layer 3 devices at the distribution layer, every router functions as a gateway for a limited number of access layer users.
Switch Block Deployment
Routers, or multilayer switches, are usually deployed in pairs, with access layer switches evenly divided between them. This configuration is referred to as a building, or departmental, switch block. Each switch block acts independently of the others. As a result, the failure of a single device does not cause the network to go down. Even the failure of an entire switch block does not affect a significant number of end users.